Methods of assessing the economic efficiency of the use of information technology in the financial activities of enterprises
The urgency of the problem. A common approach to determining the economic efficiency of it implementation is the ratio of profit and total costs of the enterprise. However, the effectiveness of evaluation based on only one indicator reduces the volume and gives a limited economic representation. This problem is that the impact of information technology on the profitability of the enterprise is mediated and manifested through the improvement of business processes of the enterprise, improving efficiency, obtaining analytical data, management decision-making, and so on. It is difficult to measure the actual profitability of it from the total profit of the enterprise. Therefore, the value of the performance indicator will not be able to provide accurate information on the rationality of a particular information technology. This is due to the problems of determining the results of automation, since it is not enough to calculate the efficiency as the difference between the resources consumed and the savings currently obtained.
The purpose of the article is to study the methods of economic efficiency of it implementation.
To achieve this goal, it is necessary to solve the following tasks: to give the concept of economic efficiency of it, to study the basic methods of assessing the economic efficiency of it.
Scientific novelty – developed recommendations to improve the efficiency of activities, including a balanced scorecard with financial indicators.
The structure of the article consists of an introduction, Chapter. the conclusion and the bibliographic list.
Economic efficiency of it implementation.
The definition of economic efficiency is becoming much more complex and should be evaluated in terms of strategic objectives and the development of the entire enterprise. The information technology market is developing very dynamically, responding to the needs of the business environment, so there are new CSRP (Planning Synchronized customer Resources), enterprise resource Planning, integration of customer-oriented strategy and synchronized interaction with customers and customers. These information technologies are the next generation, if MRP, MRPII and ERP are focused on the internal organization of the enterprise, then CSRP systems contain a full cycle of business technologies from the design of the future product, taking into account customer requirements for warranty, service and maintenance. According to the world consulting companies, the stock reserves for the majority of enterprises in which such systems were introduced were reduced by an average of 11%, operating costs decreased by 12%, administrative costs – by 10%, timeliness of delivery improved – by 13%, compliance with production plans – by 12%; the production cycle decreased – by 14%. However, 27% of the surveyed heads of enterprises said that they did not return the investment that was spent on the introduction of information technology, and 28% can not assess the effect. Only 35% of companies implement integrated information systems without exceeding the budget and only a third of such projects are completed in accordance with the planning schedule. As a result, many enterprises do not receive the expected preferences: on average, only 8% of them will receive 80 to 100% of the planned functions. This modern stage of automation of enterprise management is also characterized by the growth of indirect effects: standardization of processes, integration of various information products, flexibility and responsiveness to the needs of consumers, which adds complexity to the evaluation process. The effectiveness of the use of information systems in the economic management of the enterprise directly depends on two main factors: the impact on improving the efficiency of management and reducing the cost of the enterprise, which increases the profitability of the enterprise. Processes of management of information infrastructure of the enterprise and, in particular, processes of it (information technologies) are connected with reasonable investment of resources for acquisition of technologies, development of projects, carrying out preparatory works, development of new technologies of management and training of personnel. The main stages of it efficiency assessment implementation and application at the enterprise can be summarized in 3 stages: preparation, analysis and evaluation of technology selection; implementation – analysis and evaluation of direct costs and feasibility study; implementation – assessment of economic efficiency of application and calculation of intellectual depreciation and possible gradual modernization of information technologies in the future. Economic efficiency is calculated at all stages of is design: 1) in the survey of the enterprise to create, there is a preliminary calculation of the expected economic efficiency is performed; 2) at the stage of technological design, and a detailed calculation of the expected economic efficiency is performed; 3) at the introduction into industrial activity, determining the actual economic efficiency. However, in the early stages of preparation and design of works, the calculations are prognostic. The calculation of economic efficiency after the introduction or modernization of the information system or individual information technologies is often considered within the framework of two methodological directions in the domestic economy, the first is based on the calculations of the annual economic effect, the second – according to the calculations of the integrated economic effect. When calculating the annual economic effect, the annual sales volume, production costs, profit from sales in the reporting period (after changes in the information system of the enterprise) are compared with similar indicators for the base period (before changes in the enterprise). In the case of calculation of the integrated economic effect, the indices of expenditure and income side of the enterprise for the entire reporting period from the beginning of changes in the IP of the enterprise are compared. However, both methods of calculating economic efficiency do not allow to accurately assess the contribution to the overall economic development of the enterprise. This is due to many factors that can affect the indices being compared. For example, annual sales may change due to the introduction of new technological developments, changes in demand or advertising policies. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the economic impact of the use of it on the basis of all factors: economic, organizational, technical and social at all stages of IP application. To do this, we use a set of different methods of analysis, which can be divided into three groups: methods of financial, qualitative and predictive analysis. Financial analysis is a generally accepted tool to justify any business project. The methods in this analysis use traditional approaches to the calculation of economic efficiency, taking into account the specifics. The advantage of financial methods in their basic principles, borrowed from the classical theory of determining economic efficiency. Also, with the help of financial methods, it is possible to estimate the economic parameters of the ISS implementation and application by analogy with the assessment of any other investment projects. Qualitative analysis methods are complemented by quantitative calculations that help to assess all the factors of IP efficiency and compare them with the overall strategy of the company. This group of methods allows professionals to choose the most important characteristics of the systems for them independently depending on the specifics of the products and activities of the enterprise and change the ratio between the indicators using significance coefficients. Forecasting methods use statistical and mathematical models to estimate the probability of risk occurrence. Such methods are used to assess the future impact of the information system; they are not common in practice, like others.
The first conclusion. All groups of methods for assessing the economic efficiency of IP in the enterprise can provide comprehensive information about the use of it and at all stages of development of the enterprise.
The second conclusion despite the fact that in modern conditions, any enterprise has a fairly large selection of different methods and techniques for assessing the efficiency of use, businessmen prefer analysis with two indicators: total cost of ownership (TCO) and return on investment (RETURN ON INVESTMENT.)
Third conclusion. The total cost of ownership indicator (TCO) describes the full set of costs for the implementation and use of the ISS, where, in addition to the direct costs of IP development, implementation and operation, the indirect costs associated with downtime.